Effect of Brainwave Entrainment on Brainwave Frequency Spectrum and Heart Rate Variability


  • V. V. Malhotra
  • D. Javed
  • Sofia Mudda
  • Francisco José Cidral-Filho
  • Nathalia Nahas Donatello
  • Roshan Sutar
  • Santosh Wakode
  • Brijesh Kumar
  • Priyanka Kashyap
  • Rekha Jiwane
  • Patrick Porter


Brainwave Entrainment, Brain waves, Heart Rate Variability, Brainwave frequency spectrum.


Introduction: Brainwave entrainment (BWE) is a method that uses external stimuli, such as sounds, lights, or vibrations at specific frequencies, to guide the brain into specific brainwave patterns and states of consciousness. BWE has gained importance in reducing stress, anxiety and restoring sleep. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of BWE on Heart rate variability (HRV) and Brainwave Frequency Spectrum (BFS). Material and methods: Audio-visual BWE sessions were conducted (n=20) using an BWE device and cell phone application (the Brain- Tap® headset and app). The sessions entailed background music, guided slow deep breathing (SDB), and audio BWE through binaural beats and isochronic tones oscillating from 18 to 0. 5 Hz, as well as visual entrainment through light-emitting diode lights at 470 nanometers (nm) flickering at 18 to 0. 5 Hz. HRV and BFS were measured before and during the BWE sessions. BFS was assessed by an advanced neuro-fractal analysis.

Results: BWE sessions triggered a state of heightened focus (indicated by increased gamma and beta activity), as well as participants remaining alert and relaxed (marked by increased alpha waves). The study also recorded an increase in the Low Frequency (LF) power of HRV. Final considerations: This finding suggests that these changes may be vagally mediated. Also, guided SDB might temporarily modulate HRV and act as a physiological method to tap into the cardio-vagal reserve. This study implies that BWE has potential benefits for cardiovascular autonomic regulation.






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